Towards Precision Neuromodulation: The Advancements of Closed-Loop Brain Stimulation
Closed-loop stimulation is a promising approach to brain stimulation that involves monitoring brain activity in real-time and adjusting stimulation parameters accordingly. The goal of this approach is to create a feedback loop between the brain and stimulation, resulting in more precise and effective treatments for brain disorders.
Closing the loop between brain and electrical stimulation: Towards precision neuromodulation treatments and Breaking the boundaries of interacting with the human brain using adaptive closed-loop stimulation both highlight the benefits of closed-loop stimulation. One key advantage is the potential for precision, which can be achieved by monitoring brain activity and tailoring stimulation to the individual patient. This can lead to better outcomes and fewer side effects compared to traditional, one-size-fits-all approaches to brain stimulation. Another potential benefit is the ability to interact with the human brain in new ways, such as using closed-loop stimulation as part of a brain-computer interface.
However, closed-loop stimulation is still in its early stages of development and many challenges must be overcome. For example, there is still much to be learned about the underlying biology of brain stimulation and how to use it most effectively. Additionally, ethical considerations must be considered when developing new techniques for interacting with the human brain.
In addition to the above-mentioned papers, Brain state-dependent brain stimulation also sheds light on the field of closed-loop stimulation. The authors of this paper found that the effectiveness of brain stimulation is dependent on the state of the brain. They demonstrated that stimulation is more effective when it is delivered during specific brain states, such as during sleep or after learning. This finding highlights the importance of considering the state of the brain when designing closed-loop stimulation protocols.
- Closed-loop stimulation involves monitoring brain activity in real-time and adjusting stimulation parameters accordingly.
- The main benefits of closed-loop stimulation include precision, new possibilities for human-brain interactions, and the potential to revolutionise brain stimulation treatments.
- Closed-loop stimulation is still in its early stages of development and there are challenges that must be overcome.
- The authors of all three papers call for continued research and development, interdisciplinary collaboration, and careful consideration of ethical issues.
- The goal is to create personalised, evidence-based treatments that can improve the lives of people with brain disorders.
neuroConn LOOP-IT offers a hardware platform that is ideal for closed-loop stimulation experiments. It is equipped with a variety of state-of-the-art features that support a wide range of functionalities, including EEG/ECG/EMG biosignal acquisition, tDCS/tACS/tRNS current sources, multichannel digital I/O, and more.
- Electrically Independent Modules: The closed-loop device supports a number of electrically independent modules that can be used in combination to achieve different functionalities, allowing for greater flexibility and precision in closed-loop stimulation.
- Real-Time Data Processing: The LOOP-IT platform is designed for real-time data processing, ensuring that all modules run synchronised and have jitter-free data transcribing. This results in a loop delay that can be set as low as 100 μs, making it possible to achieve precise, real-time feedback in closed-loop stimulation experiments.
- Minimal Loop Delay: LOOP-IT features a minimised constant delay between data acquisition, event detection, analysis and derived parameters for the output module, ensuring that stimulation is delivered as quickly and precisely as possible.
- Cutting-Edge Features: With its advanced hardware platform and real-time data processing capabilities, neuroConn LOOP-IT is a cutting-edge solution for closed-loop stimulation that offers researchers and clinicians the tools they need to push the boundaries of what is possible with this exciting new technology.
Bergmann, T.O. (2018) “Brain State-dependent brain stimulation,” Frontiers in Psychology, 9. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02108.
Nasr, K. et al. (2022) “Breaking the boundaries of interacting with the human brain using adaptive closed-loop stimulation,” Progress in Neurobiology, 216, p. 102311. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2022.102311.
Soleimani, G. et al. (2022) “Closing the loop between brain and electrical stimulation: Towards precision neuromodulation treatments,” PsyArXiv Preprints [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/mxy85.
- Closing the Loop between Brain and Electrical Stimulation: Towards Precision Neuromodulation Treatments. Soleimani, Ghazaleh, Michael A. Nitsche, Til Ole Bergmann, Farzad Towhidkhah, Ines Violante, Romy Lorenz, Rayus Kuplicki, et al. PsyArXiv Preprints 2022
- Breaking the boundaries of interacting with the human brain using adaptive closed-loop stimulation Nasr, Khaled, David Haslacher, Eran Dayan, Nitzan Censor, Leonardo G. Cohen, and Surjo R. Soekadar Progress in Neurobiology, 216, p. 102311 2022
- Brain State-dependent brain stimulation Bergmann, T.O Frontiers in Psychology, 9 2018